The vast majority of coins are round. In the XII-XVI centuries, they appeared as Brakteat, i.e. they were unilaterally minted in a thin sheet of metal. The pattern appearing on heads and tails was the same, just reversed. In Poland, coins were minted this way by Mieszko III the Old, the High Duke of Poland. This solution saved precious metal in production, but, on the other hand, also caused the necessity of frequent coin exchange (even 3 times a year). We may guess the economic effects.
Reverse of the coin inspired by a Polish złoty
Klipa coins, already known in the ancient ages, usually had a square shape. It enabled simple minting techniques. Most of commemorative coins have been made such way back from the 17th century.
All characters and symbols appearing on numismatics make up their legend (in Latin ‘legere’ means to read). They all have deep symbolism. ‘Heads or tails?’ – let’s start with tails. As a rule, on this side of the coin, the face value is placed. In the reverse field, it has the number 1. Egzerga, i.e. the space underneath ‘1’, often contains the date of issue. In this case, ‘2018’ has been intentionally moved from this part to the left side of the reverse field. On the right side, I engraved the name of the person, for whom the coin was ordered, and which corresponds perfectly with the whole craft (Złotyś, resembling the Polish currency, zloty). The name was a source of inspiration and the idea. On both sides of the coin, a rant, raised above the reverse field, has been made. Its functional task is coin strengthening.
The obverse, the front side of the coin, is its main part and is more important than the head (the exception is e.g. the euro). As a legend, in the centre there is an eagle (actually a white-tailed eagle, which is strictly speaking not an eagle). The pattern was taken from Polish coins. This version originates in 1927 and has been still in use since that time. The author was Kamiński – as heralds point out, his inspiration was the medal in honour of Ignacy Jan Paderewski, a Polish pianist and politician, made by a French sculptor, Elisa Beetz-Charpentier. Above the Eagle, the name ‘Stanica’ is situated, as the place of origin of the person for whom the craft was ordered, and ‘German Schwabisch Gmund’, as his current residence. A mint mark often is placed on the obverse as well.
The design also includes a ribbed rim. The origin of ribbing was supposedly a protection against biting edges of coins made of noble metals. Because of the biting, coins were becoming smaller and smaller. Nowadays, edge marking informs the visually impaired about a coin value.